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XB-ART-55844
Dis Model Mech January 1, 2019; 12 (4):

Modeling congenital kidney diseases in Xenopus laevis.

Blackburn ATM , Miller RK .


Abstract
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in ∼1/500 live births and are a leading cause of pediatric kidney failure. With an average wait time of 3-5 years for a kidney transplant, the need is high for the development of new strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of CAKUT and preserving renal function. Next-generation sequencing has uncovered a significant number of putative causal genes, but a simple and efficient model system to examine the function of CAKUT genes is needed. Xenopus laevis (frog) embryos are well-suited to model congenital kidney diseases and to explore the mechanisms that cause these developmental defects. Xenopus has many advantages for studying the kidney: the embryos develop externally and are easily manipulated with microinjections, they have a functional kidney in ∼2 days, and 79% of identified human disease genes have a verified ortholog in Xenopus This facilitates high-throughput screening of candidate CAKUT-causing genes. In this Review, we present the similarities between Xenopus and mammalian kidneys, highlight studies of CAKUT-causing genes in Xenopus and describe how common kidney diseases have been modeled successfully in this model organism. Additionally, we discuss several molecular pathways associated with kidney disease that have been studied in Xenopus and demonstrate why it is a useful model for studying human kidney diseases.

PubMed ID: 30967415
PMC ID: PMC6505484
Article link: Dis Model Mech
Grant support: [+]
Genes referenced: pax2

Disease Ontology terms: CAKUT [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions


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