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J Cell Biol January 1, 2019; 218 (7): 2388-2402.

ISM1 regulates NODAL signaling and asymmetric organ morphogenesis during development.

Osório L , Wu X , Wang L , Jiang Z , Neideck C , Sheng G , Zhou Z .

Isthmin1 (ISM1) was originally identified as a fibroblast group factor expressed in Xenopus laevis embryonic brain, but its biological functions remain unclear. The spatiotemporal distribution of ISM1, with high expression in the anterior primitive streak of the chick embryo and the anterior mesendoderm of the mouse embryo, suggested that ISM1 may regulate signaling by the NODAL subfamily of TGB-β cytokines that control embryo patterning. We report that ISM1 is an inhibitor of NODAL signaling. ISM1 has little effect on TGF-β1, ACTIVIN-A, or BMP4 signaling but specifically inhibits NODAL-induced phosphorylation of SMAD2. In line with this observation, ectopic ISM1 causes defective left-right asymmetry and abnormal heart positioning in chick embryos. Mechanistically, ISM1 interacts with NODAL ligand and type I receptor ACVR1B through its AMOP domain, which compromises the NODAL-ACVR1B interaction and down-regulates phosphorylation of SMAD2. Therefore, we identify ISM1 as an extracellular antagonist of NODAL and reveal a negative regulatory mechanism that provides greater plasticity for the fine-tuning of NODAL signaling.

PubMed ID: 31171630
PMC ID: PMC6605798
Article link: J Cell Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: actb acvr1b acvr2b bmp4 cer1 ecd gdf1 ism1 lefty myc nodal pitx2 smad2 snai1 tdgf1.3 tsr1

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References [+] :
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