XB-ART-56105Sci Rep July 3, 2019; 9 (1): 9623.
Impacts of the synthetic androgen Trenbolone on gonad differentiation and development - comparisons between three deeply diverged anuran families.
Using a recently developed approach for testing endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) in amphibians, comprising synchronized tadpole exposure plus genetic and histological sexing of metamorphs in a flow-through-system, we tested the effects of 17β-Trenbolone (Tb), a widely used growth promoter in cattle farming, in three deeply diverged anuran families: the amphibian model species Xenopus laevis (Pipidae) and the non-models Bufo(tes) viridis (Bufonidae) and Hyla arborea (Hylidae). Trenbolone was applied in three environmentally and/or physiologically relevant concentrations (0.027 µg/L (10-10 M), 0.27 µg/L (10-9 M), 2.7 µg/L (10-8 M)). In none of the species, Tb caused sex reversals or masculinization of gonads but had negative species-specific impacts on gonad morphology and differentiation after the completion of metamorphosis, independently of genetic sex. In H. arborea and B. viridis, mounting Tb-concentration correlated positively with anatomical abnormalities at 27 µg/L (10-9 M) and 2.7 µg/L (10-8 M), occurring in X. laevis only at the highest Tb concentration. Despite anatomical aberrations, histologically all gonadal tissues differentiated seemingly normally when examined at the histological level but at various rates. Tb-concentration caused various species-specific mortalities (low in Xenopus, uncertain in Bufo). Our data suggest that deep phylogenetic divergence modifies EDC-vulnerability, as previously demonstrated for Bisphenol A (BPA) and Ethinylestradiol (EE2).
PubMed ID: 31270347
Article link: Sci Rep
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