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Nucleic Acids Res January 1, 2020; 48 (4): 1925-1940.

APE1 senses DNA single-strand breaks for repair and signaling.

Lin Y , Raj J , Li J , Ha A , Hossain MA , Richardson C , Mukherjee P , Yan S .

DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) represent the most abundant type of DNA damage. Unrepaired SSBs impair DNA replication and transcription, leading to cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Although PARP1 and XRCC1 are implicated in the SSB repair pathway, it remains unclear how SSB repair and SSB signaling pathways are coordinated and regulated. Using Xenopus egg extract and in vitro reconstitution systems, here we show that SSBs are first sensed by APE1 to initiate 3''-5'' SSB end resection, followed by APE2 recruitment to continue SSB end resection. Notably, APE1''s exonuclease activity is critical for SSB repair and SSB signaling pathways. An APE1 exonuclease-deficient mutant identified in somatic tissue from a cancer patient highlighted the significance of APE1 exonuclease activity in cancer etiology. In addition, APE1 interacts with APE2 and PCNA, although PCNA is dispensable for APE1''s exonuclease activity. Taken together, we propose a two-step APE1/APE2-mediated mechanism for SSB end resection that couples DNA damage response with SSB repair in a eukaryotic system.

PubMed ID: 31828326
PMC ID: PMC7038996
Article link: Nucleic Acids Res
Grant support: [+]
Genes referenced: apex2 ghrh myc parp1 pcna ssb xrcc1

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Abbotts, Human AP endonuclease 1 (APE1): from mechanistic insights to druggable target in cancer. 2010, Pubmed

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