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Chemosphere June 17, 2020; 259 127415.

Comparing the effect of triadimefon and its metabolite on male and female Xenopus laevis: Obstructed growth and gonad morphology.

Zhang W , Deng Y , Chen L , Zhang L , Wang Z , Liu R , Zhou Z , Diao J .

Amphibians are the most endangered class of vertebrates. In this study, Xenopus laevis frogs were exposed to 0, 1 and 10 mg/L of triadimefon or triadimenol. After 14 or 28 days of exposure, high levels of triadimefon or triadimenol obstructed the growth of frogs. However, low levels of triadimefon induced the growth of females after the longer period of exposure. We also found that the antioxidant enzyme activity and LDH levels in males were higher than those in females after 28-days exposure. In histopathology tests, triadimenol exerted more effect on the ovary while triadimefon exerted more effect on the testes. Additionally, the levels of Estradiol in all 14-day treatments, except 1 mg/L triadimenol, were significantly decreased, however, there was no difference in testosterone levels. Furthermore, triadimefon and triadimenol disrupted the expression of genes controlling hormone homeostasis and reproduction, and this effect depended on the exposure time and the gender of the organism. Our experiments explored the effect of triadimefon and its metabolite on the gonads of frogs and highlighted the role that pesticides are likely to play in the global decline of amphibians.

PubMed ID: 32603964
Article link: Chemosphere

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