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Biochem Biophys Res Commun May 20, 2005; 330 (4): 1138-45.

Genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity for predator-induced morphological defenses in anuran tadpole, Rana pirica, using cDNA subtraction and microarray analysis.

Mori T , Hiraka I , Kurata Y , Kawachi H , Kishida O , Nishimura K .

Anuran tadpoles (Rana pirica) are induced to develop a higher tail and a bulgy body as predator-specific morphological responses when they are exposed to predatory larval salamanders. Subtractive hybridization was performed using induced tadpole body skin and normal tadpoles'' body skin. A total of 196 clones showed higher expression, and 104 clones showed lower expression, when they formed bulgy bodies. In the subtraction, carboxypeptidase B, trypsinogen, elastase I, fibrinogen, elastase II, triacyl-glycerol lipase, and alpha1-antitrypsin genes showed lower expression. In contrast, RT-like protein, bullous pemphigoid antigen, phosphoserine aminotransferase, uromodulin, tetranectin, chaperonin-like protein, zinc finger protein, osteonectin, aldehyde dehydrogenase, Sec 23A protein, and ribosomal protein showed higher gene expression. Microarray analysis was also performed using this subtracted cDNA (nine replicates). Results of the microarray data essentially corresponded with those of the subtraction data, and the degree of the suppressed genes was much stronger than that of the expressed genes. Carboxypeptidase B showed the strongest suppression, and its inhibition range was from 1/100 to 3/100 compared with that of control body skin. Strong suppression was also observed with trypsinogen, elastase I, fibrinogen, and elastase II as well. These results can be interpreted as increases of fibrinolysis by strong depression of both carboxypeptidase B and other genes simultaneously, resulting in the retention of blood vessels and facilitating the circulation of blood. Expression was observed in phosphoserine aminotransferase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, RT-related protein, chaperonin-like protein, tetranectin, bullous pemphigoid antigen, uromodulin, and Sec 23A protein. They were significantly (p<0.05) increased and were at least 1.5 times greater compared with the control. From the appearance, it seems that the bulgy shaped body is highly connecting to the bullous pemphigoid (BP) antigen that causes the skin blistering disorder, and tetranectin and uromodulin may be related to the extracell matrix through myogenesis, protein secretion, and ion transport, respectively. Since the RT-related protein gene derived from retrotransposon (L1) is known to disrupt mammalian transcriptomes, retrotransposon may be involved with phenotypic plasticity for morphological defense by Rana prica against predator threat.

PubMed ID: 15823562
Article link: Biochem Biophys Res Commun

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: cela1.6 fga hspd1 umod.2