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Cold Spring Harb Protoc February 3, 2021;

Tetrode Recording in the Xenopus laevis Visual System Using Multichannel Glass Electrodes.

Hiramoto M , Cline HT .

The Xenopus tadpole visual system shows an extraordinary extent of developmental and visual experience-dependent plasticity, establishing sophisticated neuronal response properties that guide essential survival behaviors. The external development and access to the developing visual circuit of Xenopus tadpoles make them an excellent experimental system in which to elucidate plastic changes in neuronal properties and their capacity to encode information about the visual scene. The temporal structure of neural activity encodes a significant amount of information, access to which requires recording methods with high temporal resolution. Conversely, elucidating changes in the temporal structure of neural activity requires recording over extended periods. It is challenging to maintain patch-clamp recordings over extended periods and Ca2+ imaging has limited temporal resolution. Extracellular recordings have been used in other systems for extended recording; however, spike amplitudes in the developing Xenopus visual circuit are not large enough to be captured by distant electrodes. Here we describe a juxtacellular tetrode recording method for continuous long-term recordings from neurons in intact tadpoles, which can also be exposed to diverse visual stimulation protocols. Electrode position in the tectum is stabilized by the large contact area in the tissue. Contamination of the signal from neighboring neurons is minimized by the tight contact between the glass capillaries and the dense arrangement of neurons in the tectum. This recording method enables analysis of developmental and visual experience-dependent plastic changes in neuronal response properties at higher temporal resolution and over longer periods than current methods.

PubMed ID: 33536286
PMC ID: PMC8494192
Article link: Cold Spring Harb Protoc
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus tropicalis Xenopus laevis