XB-ART-57824Pharm Res January 1, 2021; 38 (1): 113-125.
Participation of Monocarboxylate Transporter 8, But Not P-Glycoprotein, in Carrier-Mediated Cerebral Elimination of Phenytoin across the Blood-Brain Barrier.
PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated in detail the transport of phenytoin across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to identify the transporter(s) involved in BBB-mediated phenytoin efflux from the brain. METHODS: We evaluated the brain-to-blood efflux transport of phenytoin in vivo by determining the brain efflux index (BEI) and uptake in brain slices. We additionally conducted brain perfusion experiments and BEI studies in P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-deficient mice. In addition, we determined the mRNA expression of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) in isolated brain capillaries and performed phenytoin uptake studies in MCT-expressing Xenopus oocytes. RESULTS: [14C]Phenytoin brain efflux was time-dependent with a half-life of 17 min in rats and 31 min in mice. Intracerebral pre-administration of unlabeled phenytoin attenuated BBB-mediated phenytoin efflux transport, suggesting carrier-mediated phenytoin efflux transport across the BBB. Pre-administration of P-gp substrates in rats and genetic P-gp deficiency in mice did not affect BBB-mediated phenytoin efflux transport. In contrast, pre-administration of MCT8 inhibitors attenuated phenytoin efflux. Moreover, rat MCT8-expressing Xenopus oocytes exhibited [14C]phenytoin uptake, which was inhibited by unlabeled phenytoin. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that MCT8 at the BBB participates in phenytoin efflux transport from the brain to the blood.
PubMed ID: 33527223
Article link: Pharm Res
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
References [+] :
Bajpai, Roles of cytochrome P4502C9 and cytochrome P4502C19 in the stereoselective metabolism of phenytoin to its major metabolite. 1997, Pubmed