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XB-ART-6419
Cell. October 4, 2002; 111 (1): 77-89.

Asymmetries in H+/K+-ATPase and cell membrane potentials comprise a very early step in left-right patterning.

Levin M , Thorlin T , Robinson KR , Nogi T , Mercola M .


Abstract
A pharmacological screen identified the H+ and K+ ATPase transporter as obligatory for normal orientation of the left-right body axis in Xenopus. Maternal H+/K+-ATPase mRNA is symmetrically expressed in the 1-cell Xenopus embryo but becomes localized during the first two cell divisions, demonstrating that asymmetry is generated within two hours postfertilization. Although H+/K+-ATPase subunit mRNAs are symmetrically localized in chick embryos, an endogenous H+/K+-ATPase-dependent difference in membrane voltage potential exists between the left and right sides of the primitive streak. In both species, pharmacologic or genetic perturbation of endogenous H+/K+-ATPase randomized the sided pattern of asymmetrically expressed genes and induced organ heterotaxia. Thus, LR asymmetry determination depends on a very early differential ion flux created by H+/K+-ATPase activity.

PubMed ID: 12372302
Article link: Cell.
Grant support: R01 HL63271 NHLBI NIH HHS , R01 HL63271 NHLBI NIH HHS , R01 HL63271 NHLBI NIH HHS , R01 HL63271 NHLBI NIH HHS , R01 HL63271 NHLBI NIH HHS , R01 HL63271 NHLBI NIH HHS

Genes referenced: rpsa
Antibodies referenced:
Morpholinos referenced:

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