Asymmetries in H+/K+-ATPase and cell membrane potentials comprise a very early step in left-right patterning.
A pharmacological screen identified the H+ and K+ ATPase transporter as obligatory for normal orientation of the left-right body axis in Xenopus. Maternal H+/K+-ATPase mRNA is symmetrically expressed in the 1-cell Xenopus embryo but becomes localized during the first two cell divisions, demonstrating that asymmetry is generated within two hours postfertilization. Although H+/K+-ATPase subunit mRNAs are symmetrically localized in chick embryos, an endogenous H+/K+-ATPase-dependent difference in membrane voltage potential exists between the left and right sides of the primitive streak. In both species, pharmacologic or genetic perturbation of endogenous H+/K+-ATPase randomized the sided pattern of asymmetrically expressed genes and induced organ heterotaxia. Thus, LR asymmetry determination depends on a very early differential ion flux created by H+/K+-ATPase activity.
PubMed ID: 12372302
Article link: Cell.
Grant support: R01 HL63271 NHLBI NIH HHS
Genes referenced: rpsa