Isoflurane hyperalgesia is modulated by nicotinic inhibition.
BACKGROUND: The inhaled anesthetic isoflurane inhibits neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at concentrations lower than those used for anesthesia. Isoflurane produces biphasic nociceptive responses, with both hyperalgesia and analgesia within this concentration range. Because nicotinic agonists act as analgesics, the authors hypothesized that inhibition of nicotinic transmission by isoflurane causes hyperalgesia. METHODS: The authors studied female mice at 6-8 weeks of age. They measured hind paw withdrawal latency at isoflurane concentrations from 0 to 0.98 vol% after the animals had received a nicotinic agonist (nicotine), a nicotinic antagonist (mecamylamine or chlorisondamine), or saline intraperitoneally. In addition, the authors tested the interactions between mecamylamine and isoflurane and nicotine and isoflurane in heterologously expressed alpha(4)beta(2) nAChRs. RESULTS: Female mice had significant hyperalgesia from isoflurane. Nicotine administration prevented isoflurane-induced hyperalgesia without altering the antinociception produced by higher isoflurane concentrations. Mecamylamine treatment caused a biphasic nociceptive response similar to that caused by isoflurane. Mecamylamine and isoflurane had an additive effect, both at heterologously expressed alpha(4)beta(2) nAChRs and on the production of hyperalgesia in vivo. Mecamylamine thus potentiated hyperalgesia but did not affect analgesia. CONCLUSIONS: Since hyperalgesia occurs in vivo at isoflurane doses that antagonize nAChRs in vitro, is prevented by a nicotinic agonist, and is mimicked and potentiated by nicotinic antagonists, the authors conclude that isoflurane inhibition of nAChRs activation is involved in the pathway that causes hyperalgesia. At subanesthetic doses, isoflurane can either enhance pain responses (produce hyperalgesia) or be analgesic (antinociceptive). In rats, low volatile anesthetic concentrations (0.1-0.2 minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]) elicit hyperalgesia, while 0.4-0.6 MAC elicits antinociception.
PubMed ID: 12131122
Article link: Anesthesiology.
Grant support: 1P01GM47818 NIGMS NIH HHS , K08GM00695 NIGMS NIH HHS