XB-ART-8378Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A September 25, 2001; 98 (20): 11353-8.
Human disease-causing NOG missense mutations: effects on noggin secretion, dimer formation, and bone morphogenetic protein binding.
Secreted noggin protein regulates bone morphogenetic protein activity during development. In mice, a complete loss of noggin protein leads to multiple malformations including joint fusion, whereas mice heterozygous for Nog loss-of-function mutations are normal. In humans, heterozygous NOG missense mutations have been found in patients with two autosomal dominant disorders of joint development, multiple synostosis syndrome (SYNS1) and a milder disorder proximal symphalangism (SYM1). This study investigated the effect of one SYNS1 and two SYM1 disease-causing missense mutations on the structure and function of noggin. The SYNS1 mutation abolished, and the SYM1 mutations reduced, the secretion of functional noggin dimers in transiently transfected COS-7 cells. Coexpression of mutant noggin with wild-type noggin, to resemble the heterozygous state, did not interfere with wild-type noggin secretion. These data indicate that the human disease-causing mutations are hypomorphic alleles that reduce secretion of functional dimeric noggin. Therefore, we conclude that noggin has both species-specific and joint-specific dosage-dependent roles during joint formation. Surprisingly, in contrast to the COS-7 cell studies, the SYNS1 mutant was able to form dimers in Xenopus laevis oocytes. This finding indicates that there also exist species-specific differences in the ability to process mutant noggin polypeptides.
PubMed ID: 11562478
PMC ID: PMC58733
Article link: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Genes referenced: bmp4 mpv17 nog
Disease Ontology terms: proximal symphalangism
OMIMs: SYMPHALANGISM, PROXIMAL, 1A; SYM1A
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References [+] :
Baker, Wnt signaling in Xenopus embryos inhibits bmp4 expression and activates neural development. 2000, Pubmed, Xenbase