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Figure 7. Semaphorins are expressed in close proximity to migrating cranial neural crest cells. In situ hybridization of tadpole-stage embryos; enlargements of the head are shown. Red arrows indicate migrating neural crest cells, white arrows indicate neurogenic placodes. A: Sema3A expression. Staining in the midbrain hindbrain boundary was confirmed by double in situ hybridization with engrailed (data not shown). B: Sema3C expression. C: Sema3D expression. D: Sema3F expression. Double in situ hybridization using Krox20 or engrailed antisense probes was used to confirm staining in the rhombomeres or the midbrain hindbrain boundary, respectively (data not shown and Q). E: Sema4A expression. F: Sema4B expression. G: Sema4C expression. H: Sema4G expression. I: Sema5B expression. K: Sema6A expression. L: Sema6B expression. M: Sema6D expression. N: Sema3A expression at early tadpole stage. O: Double in situ hybridization using a Sema3A (blue) and a twist (red) antisense probe at tadpole stage. Sema3A expression is localized posterior to the migrating twist-expressing neural crest cells (black arrow). P: For comparison twist expression at tadpole stage is shown. Q: Double in situ hybridization showing Sema3F (blue) expression adjacent to the anterior portion of the migrating Krox20-expressing (red) neural crest cells (black arrow). cg, cement gland; e, eye; mh, midbrain hindbrain boundary; op, otic placode; r3, rhombomere 3; r5, rhombomere 5.

Image published in: Koestner U et al. (2008)

Copyright © 2008. Image reproduced with permission of the Publisher, John Wiley & Sons.

GeneSynonymsSpeciesStage(s)Tissue
sema4c.LX.laevisThroughout NF stage 28cement gland
otic placode
neural crest
anterior branchial crest
posterior branchial crest
cranial neural crest
sema4g.SX.laevisThroughout NF stage 32eye
otic placode
sema4b.SX.laevisThroughout NF stage 25pronephric mesenchyme
cement gland
otic placode
neural crest
sema5b.Ssemg, semag, semaphorin-5BX.laevisThroughout NF stage 32pronephric kidney
brain
midbrain
hindbrain
eye
neural crest
sema3a.LSema 3AX.laevisThroughout NF stage 25somite
cranial neural crest
mandibular crest
anterior dorsal lateral plate region
diencephalon
midbrain-hindbrain boundary
cranial placode
neural crest
sema6d.Lsemaphorin 6D4X.laevisThroughout NF stage 29 and 30otic placode
cranial neural crest
neural tube
sema3c.SX.laevisThroughout NF stage 28forebrain
cranial neural crest
otic placode
cranial placode
neural crest
sema3d.SX.laevisThroughout NF stage 29 and 30posterior neural tube
midbrain-hindbrain boundary
periocular region
neural crest
cranial placode
rhombomere R5
cranial neural crest
anterior branchial crest
otic vesicle
rhombomere
rhombomere R3
sema4a.LX.laevisThroughout NF stage 29 and 30neural crest
periocular region
cranial placode
sema3a.LSema 3AX.laevisThroughout NF stage 29 and 30diencephalon
anterior dorsal lateral plate region
sema3a.LSema 3AX.laevisThroughout NF stage 32diencephalon
midbrain-hindbrain boundary
somite
periocular region
anterior dorsal lateral plate region
lateral plate mesoderm
mandibular crest
sema3fl.Lsema4, semak, sema-ivX.laevisThroughout NF stage 28rhombomere
rhombomere R3
rhombomere R5
midbrain-hindbrain boundary
cranial placode
cranial neural crest
sema6a.SX.laevisThroughout NF stage 28optic vesicle
lateral plate mesoderm
anterior dorsal lateral plate region
midbrain-hindbrain boundary
otic vesicle
sema6b.LX.laevisThroughout NF stage 32otic vesicle
spinal cord
neural crest
cardiac neural crest
twist1.SXtwi, X-twi, twist, Xtwist, twist1-b, twist1-a, twistX.laevisThroughout NF stage 28neural crest
cranial neural crest
posterior branchial crest
anterior branchial crest
mandibular crest
hyoid crest
egr2.LXKr20, EGR-2, Krox-20, XKrox-20, krox20X.laevisThroughout NF stage 28posterior branchial crest
rhombomere
rhombomere R3
rhombomere R5
cranial neural crest

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