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Figure 3. In situ hybridizations of runx2, sox9, collagen2a1, and cbfb. All images are lateral views, anterior to the right. Runx2 expression begins in the presumptive suprarostral plate (SP). It expands to the anlage of the cranial trabeculae (CT) and a faint portion of the hyoid arch crest (HA) by stage 35/36. Runx2 staining includes the future ceratobranchial (CB) and ceratohyal (CH) cartilages by stage 39, and is additionally found in the otic capsule (OC) by stage 41. The expression of runx2 in the ceratohyal decreases during stage 41 as this element begins to chondrify. The distribution of sox9 is more extensive than that of runx2 by stage 33/34, with strong expression in the mandibular (MA), hyoid (HA), and branchial (BA) arch neural crest streams. Its expression in the crest becomes restricted by stage 35/36 with a clear distribution in the precursors of the future palatoquadrate and continued expression in the hyoid and branchial arches. By stage 39, both runx2 and sox9 are co-expressed in the future cartilaginous elements. Sox9 expression in the ceratohyal is also diminished by stage 41 with the onset of chondrogenesis. Col2a1 is distributed through the notochord and otic capsule along with a subset of the branchial arches (BA) and presumptive suprarostral plate by stage 33/34. Col2a1 is expressed widely throughout the head during the stages examined with intensifying staining in the presumptive cranial cartilages by stages 39 and 41. The runx co-factor cbfb is expressed throughout the head during development, with stronger expression in the presumptive ceratohyal and palatoquadrate by stage 39.

Image published in: Kerney R et al. (2007)

Copyright © 2007. Image reproduced with permission of the Publisher, John Wiley & Sons.

GeneSynonymsSpeciesStage(s)Tissue
runx2.Lccd, aml3, ccd1, osf2, cbfa1, pea2aa, pebp2a1, pebp2a2, pebp2aa, pebp2aa1, Xlrunx2, X-runx2X.laevisThroughout NF stage 35 and 36hyoid arch
hyoid crest
head
cartilage tissue
runx2.Lccd, aml3, ccd1, osf2, cbfa1, pea2aa, pebp2a1, pebp2a2, pebp2aa, pebp2aa1, Xlrunx2, X-runx2X.laevisThroughout NF stage 39cartilage tissue
head
hyoid arch
runx2.Lccd, aml3, ccd1, osf2, cbfa1, pea2aa, pebp2a1, pebp2a2, pebp2aa, pebp2aa1, Xlrunx2, X-runx2X.laevisThroughout NF stage 41braincase and otic capsule skeleton
cartilage tissue
head
runx2.Lccd, aml3, ccd1, osf2, cbfa1, pea2aa, pebp2a1, pebp2a2, pebp2aa, pebp2aa1, Xlrunx2, X-runx2X.laevisThroughout NF stage 33 and 34head
cartilage tissue
cbfb.Spebp2b, cbf-beta, pea2-beta, pebp2-beta, cbfbetaX.laevisSometime during NF stage 33 and 34 to NF stage 35 and 36branchial arch
head
neural crest
cartilage tissue
cbfb.Spebp2b, cbf-beta, pea2-beta, pebp2-beta, cbfbetaX.laevisSometime during NF stage 39 to NF stage 41cartilage tissue
head
chondrocranium
sox9.Scmd1, sox-9, sra1, cmpd1, sox9-b, sox9-aX.laevisThroughout NF stage 33 and 34head
neural crest
braincase and otic capsule skeleton
branchial arch
hyoid arch
mandibular arch
sox9.Scmd1, sox-9, sra1, cmpd1, sox9-b, sox9-aX.laevisThroughout NF stage 35 and 36head
branchial arch
hyoid arch
mandibular arch
braincase and otic capsule skeleton
cartilage tissue
sox9.Scmd1, sox-9, sra1, cmpd1, sox9-b, sox9-aX.laevisThroughout NF stage 39cartilage tissue
head
mandibular arch
hyoid arch
branchial arch
braincase and otic capsule skeleton
sox9.Scmd1, sox-9, sra1, cmpd1, sox9-b, sox9-aX.laevisThroughout NF stage 41cartilage tissue
mandibular arch
head
hyoid arch
branchial arch
braincase and otic capsule skeleton
col2a1.Lcol11a3, xcol2a1, X-col II, col2a1-a, col2a1-bX.laevisThroughout NF stage 33 and 34 to NF stage 35 and 36head
notochord
branchial arch
braincase and otic capsule skeleton
col2a1.Lcol11a3, xcol2a1, X-col II, col2a1-a, col2a1-bX.laevisSometime during NF stage 39 to NF stage 41head
cartilage tissue
notochord
chondrocranium
branchial arch
braincase and otic capsule skeleton

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