XB-ART-17934Nature 1996 Aug 01;3826590:420-5. doi: 10.1038/382420a0.
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Self-organization of microtubules into bipolar spindles around artificial chromosomes in Xenopus egg extracts.
Functional nuclei and mitotic spindles are shown to assemble around DNA-coated beads incubated in Xenopus egg extracts. Bipolar spindles assemble in the absence of centrosomes and kinetochores, indicating that bipolarity is an intrinsic property of microtubules assembling around chromatin in a mitotic cytoplasm. Microtubules nucleated at dispersed sites with random polarity rearrange into two arrays of uniform polarity. Spindle-pole formation requires cytoplasmic dynein-dependent translocation of microtubules across one another. It is proposed that spindles form in the absence of centrosomes by motor-dependent sorting of microtubules according to their polarity.
PubMed ID: 8684481
Article link: Nature
Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: dnai1 dync1li1
Hyams, Look ma, no chromosomes! 1996, Pubmed