XB-ART-19489J Biol Chem 1995 Jul 14;27028:16561-8.
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Electrogenic properties of the epithelial and neuronal high affinity glutamate transporter.
Active ion-coupled glutamate transport is of critical importance for excitatory synaptic transmission, normal cellular function, and epithelial amino acid metabolism. We previously reported the cloning of the rabbit intestinal high affinity glutamate transporter EAAC1 (Kanai, Y., and Hediger, M. A. (1992) Nature 360, 467-471), which is expressed in numerous tissues including intestine, kidney, liver, heart, and brain. Here, we report a detailed stoichiometric and kinetic analysis of EAAC1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Uptake studies of 22Na+ and [14C]glutamate, in combination with measurements of intracellular pH with pH microelectrodes gave a glutamate to charge ratio of 1:1, a glutamate to Na+ ratio of 1:2, and a OH-/H+ to charge ratio of 1:1. Since transport is K+ dependent it can be concluded that EAAC1-mediated glutamate transport is coupled to the cotransport of 2 Na+ ions, the countertransport of one K+ ion and either the countertransport of one OH- ion or the cotransport of 1 H+ ion. We further demonstrate that under conditions where the electrochemical gradients for these ions are disrupted, EAAC1 runs in reverse, a transport mode which is of pathologic importance. 22Na+ uptake studies revealed that there is a low level of Na+ uptake in the absence of extracellular glutamate which appears to be analogous to the Na+ leak observed for the intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter SGLT1. In voltage clamp studies, reducing extracellular Na+ from 100 to 10 mM strongly increased K0.5L-glutamate and decreased I(max). The data indicate that Na+ binding at the extracellular transporter surface becomes rate-limiting. Studies addressing the cooperativity of the substrate-binding sites indicate that there are two distinct Na(+)-binding sites with different affinities and that Na+ binding is modulated by extracellular glutamate. A hypothetical ordered kinetic transport model for EAAC1 is discussed.
PubMed ID: 7622462
Article link: J Biol Chem
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: slc1a1 slc5a1.2