XB-ART-35085Gene Expr Patterns 2006 Oct 01;68:964-70. doi: 10.1016/j.modgep.2006.03.011.
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Spatial and temporal expression of the Grainyhead-like transcription factor family during murine development.
The Drosophila transcription factor Grainyhead (grh) is expressed in ectoderm-derived tissues where it regulates several key developmental events including cuticle formation, tracheal elongation and dorsal closure. Our laboratory has recently identified three novel mammalian homologues of the grh gene, Grainyhead-like 1, -2 and -3 (Grhl1-3) that rewrite the phylogeny of this family. Using gene targeting in mice, we have shown that Grhl3 is essential for neural tube closure, skin barrier formation and wound healing. Despite their extensive sequence homology, Grhl1 and Grhl2 are unable to compensate for loss of Grhl3 in these developmental processes. To explore this lack of redundancy, and to gain further insights into the functions of this gene family in mammalian development we have performed an extensive in situ hybridisation analysis. We demonstrate that, although all three Grhl genes are highly expressed in the developing epidermis, they display subtle differences in the timing and level of expression. Surprisingly, we also demonstrate differential expression patterns in non-ectoderm-derived tissues, including the heart, the lung, and the metanephric kidney. These findings expand our understanding of the unique role of Grhl3 in neurulation and epidermal morphogenesis, and provide a focus for further functional analysis of the Grhl genes during mouse embryogenesis.
PubMed ID: 16831572
Article link: Gene Expr Patterns
Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: epha8 gnrh1 grhl1 grhl2 grhl3 slc7a5
Article Images: [+] show captions
|Fig. 1. Expression of Grhl1, Grhl2 and Grhl3 in the surface ectoderm during mouse embryonic development. Transverse sections. Se, surface ectoderm; Ec, endocardium; B, basal layer; SB, supra-basal. Scale bars 200 μm in (A–O); 40 μm in (P–R).|
|Fig. 2. Expression of Grhl1, Grhl2 and Grhl3 in the oro-nasal cavities and gastrointestinal tract during mouse embryonic development. (A–C) Transverse section of E15.5 mouse olfactory epithelium. (D–F) Sagittal sections of E16.5 mouse oral epithelium. (G–I) Transverse section of E15.5 mouse esophagus. (J–L) Transverse section of E17.5 mouse stomach epithelium. (M–O) Sagittal sections of E16.5 mouse hindgut and bladder. Ole, olfactory epithelium; Ore, oral epithelium; E, esophagus; Fe, stomach fundus epithelium; Ge, stomach glandular epithelium; Tr, trachea; B, bladder; H, hindgut; U, urethra. Scale bars 500 μm in (A–F, M–O); 200 μm in (G–L).|
|Fig. 3. Expression of Grhl1 and Grhl3 in the heart during mouse embryonic development. Transverse sections. Ec, endocardium; Av, atrio-ventricular canal; Ot, outflow tract; Mc, myocardium. Scale bars 200 μm in (A); 400 μm in (B–I).|
|Fig. 4. Expression of Grhl1, Grhl2 and Grhl3 in the lung during mouse embryonic development. A–C, G–I, M–O, transverse sections; D–F, J–L sagittal sections. E, esophagus; MB, main bronchus; SB, segmental bronchi; TB, terminal bronchi/bronchioles; Al, alveoli. Scale bars 200 μm in (A–C, M–O); 400 μm in (D–L).|
|Fig. 5. Expression of Grhl1, Grhl2 and Grhl3 in the kidney during mouse embryonic development. A–C, G–I, sagittal sections; D–F, J–L, transverse sections. Rp, renal pelvis; Mt, metanephric (collecting) tubule; U, ureter. Scale bars 200 μm in (A–C); 400 μm in (D–L).|