XB-ART-37968Biochim Biophys Acta 2008 Jan 01;17791:28-39. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagrm.2007.11.003.
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Retinoic acid is a negative regulator of matrix Gla protein gene expression in teleost fish Sparus aurata.
Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is an extracellular mineral-binding protein expressed in several tissues while accumulated only in bone and cartilage under physiological conditions. Although the precise molecular mechanism of action of MGP remains unknown, all available evidence indicates that it acts as a physiological inhibitor of mineralization. This work presents the cloning of gilthead seabream MGP gene (SaMGP) and the functional analysis of its promoter. SaMGP gene was found to be organized in five exons and to be under control of a distal and a proximal promoter, both, capable of activating SaMGP transcription in transient transfections. Furthermore, we present strong evidence that retinoic acid down-regulates SaMGP gene transcription by interacting, through binding of its receptor, with a specific region within distal promoter. Interestingly, the presence of repetitive motifs in the proximity of SaMGP gene regulatory regions suggests that they may modulate promoter accessibility to transcription machinery, as already seen for other genes. This work provides additional evidence of the usefulness of non-mammalian model systems to elucidate the complex regulation of MGP gene transcription.
PubMed ID: 18078838
Article link: Biochim Biophys Acta
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: gla mgp nat8.5