XB-ART-41620J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2010 Sep 01;563:215-28. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181e23e2b.
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Targeting hypertension with a new adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener iptakalim.
Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease. The discovery of the antihypertensive action of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel openers was a significant advance in the treatment of hypertension. Iptakalim is a novel K(ATP) channel opener with a unique chemical structure that differs from other K(ATP) openers. Among the 3 different subtypes of K(ATP) channels heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney cells and Xenopus oocytes, iptakalim exhibits significant selectivity for SUR2B/Kir6.1 channels, mild effects on SUR2A/Kir6.2 channels, and fails to open SUR1/Kir6.2 channels. Iptakalim is a more potent activator of the SUR2B/Kir6.1 subtype of K(ATP) channels than diazoxide and pinacidil, the 2 most commonly studied K(ATP) channel openers. Iptakalim selectively produces arteriolar vasodilation with essentially no effect on the capacitance vessels. It can preferentially relax arterioles and small arteries, without affecting large arteries. Furthermore, iptakalim strongly lowers the blood pressure of hypertensive rodents and humans but has little effect on normotensive rodents and humans. Selective antihypertensive action is not observed with pinacidil or diazoxide and may be due to the high selectivity of iptakalim for the SUR2B/Kir6.1 subtype of K(ATP) channels, as well as its selective relaxation of resistance vessels. In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells, iptakalim inhibits the increase of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration, as well as cell proliferation induced by endothelin-1. Furthermore, iptakalim has exerted protective effects against hypertensive damage to target organs in rats and improves endothelial dysfunction associated with cardiovascular diseases by selective activation of the SUR2B/Kir6.1 subtype of K(ATP) channels expressed in the endothelium. Clinical trials of iptakalim in the treatment of mild-moderate hypertension have been completed in China. In additional to strong antihypertensive efficacy, iptakalim seems to have a favorable safety and tolerability profile. Iptakalim is a promising new generation antihypertensive drug.
PubMed ID: 20410832
Article link: J Cardiovasc Pharmacol
Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: abcc8 abcc9 edn1 kcnj11 kcnj8