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XB-ART-44937
Dev Comp Immunol 2013 Jan 01;391-2:103-9. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2012.02.008.
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A comparative overview of immunoglobulin genes and the generation of their diversity in tetrapods.

Sun Y , Wei Z , Li N , Zhao Y .


Abstract
In the past several decades, immunoglobulin (Ig) genes have been extensively characterized in many tetrapod species. This review focuses on the expressed Ig isotypes and the diversity of Ig genes in mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. With regard to heavy chains, five Ig isotypes - IgM, IgD, IgG, IgA, and IgE - have been reported in mammals. Among these isotypes, IgM, IgD, and IgA (or its analog, IgX) are also found in non-mammalian tetrapods. Birds, reptiles, and amphibians express IgY, which is considered the precursor of IgG and IgE. Some species have developed unique isotypes of Ig, such as IgO in the platypus, IgF in Xenopus, and IgY (ΔFc) in ducks and turtles. The κ and λ light chains are both utilized in tetrapods, but the usage frequencies of κ and λ chains differ greatly among species. The diversity of Ig genes depends on several factors, including the germline repertoire and recombinatorial and post-recombinatorial diversity, and different species have evolved distinct mechanisms to generate antibody diversity.

PubMed ID: 22366185
Article link: Dev Comp Immunol


Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: ighx XB5798883 [provisional]