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Mucosal Immunol March 1, 2013; 6 (2): 358-68.
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Ancient T-independence of mucosal IgX/A: gut microbiota unaffected by larval thymectomy in Xenopus laevis.

Mashoof S , Goodroe A , Du CC , Eubanks JO , Jacobs N , Steiner JM , Tizard I , Suchodolski JS , Criscitiello MF .

Many studies address the influence of the gut microbiome on the immune system, but few dissect the effect of T cells on gut microbiota and mucosal responses. We have employed larval thymectomy in Xenopus to study the gut microbiota with and without the influence of T lymphocytes. Pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes was used to assess the relative abundance of bacterial groups present in the stomach, small and large intestine. Clostridiaceae was the most abundant family throughout the gut, while Bacteroidaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae also were well represented. Unifrac analysis revealed no differences in microbiota distribution between thymectomized and unoperated frogs. This is consistent with immunization data showing that levels of the mucosal immunoglobulin IgX are not altered significantly by thymectomy. This study in Xenopus represents the oldest organisms that exhibit class switch to a mucosal isotype and is relevant to mammalian immunology, as IgA appears to have evolved from IgX based upon phylogeny, genomic synteny, and function.

PubMed ID: 22929561
PMC ID: PMC3514589
Article link: Mucosal Immunol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: XB5798883 [provisional]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Aveskogh, Evidence for an early appearance of modern post-switch isotypes in mammalian evolution; cloning of IgE, IgG and IgA from the marsupial Monodelphis domestica. 1998, Pubmed