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Cell 2013 Feb 14;1524:768-77. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.12.044.
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Branching microtubule nucleation in Xenopus egg extracts mediated by augmin and TPX2.

Petry S , Groen AC , Ishihara K , Mitchison TJ , Vale RD .

The microtubules that comprise mitotic spindles in animal cells are nucleated at centrosomes and by spindle assembly factors that are activated in the vicinity of chromatin. Indirect evidence has suggested that microtubules also might be nucleated from pre-existing microtubules throughout the spindle, but this process has not been observed directly. Here, we demonstrate microtubule nucleation from the sides of existing microtubules in meiotic Xenopus egg extracts. Daughter microtubules grow at a low branch angle and with the same polarity as mother filaments. Branching microtubule nucleation requires γ-tubulin and augmin and is stimulated by factors previously implicated in chromatin-stimulated nucleation, guanosine triphosphate(GTP)-bound Ran and its effector, TPX2. Because of the rapid amplification of microtubule numbers and the preservation of microtubule polarity, microtubule-dependent microtubule nucleation is well suited for spindle assembly and maintenance.

PubMed ID: 23415226
PMC ID: PMC3680348
Article link: Cell
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: mapre1 ran tbx2 tpx2

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Athale, Regulation of microtubule dynamics by reaction cascades around chromosomes. 2008, Pubmed, Xenbase