XB-ART-49455J Biol Chem December 26, 2014; 289 (52): 35987-6000.
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Protein phosphatase 2A and Cdc7 kinase regulate the DNA unwinding element-binding protein in replication initiation.
The DNA unwinding element (DUE)-binding protein (DUE-B) binds to replication origins coordinately with the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase and the helicase activator Cdc45 in vivo, and loads Cdc45 onto chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts. Human DUE-B also retains the aminoacyl-tRNA proofreading function of its shorter orthologs in lower organisms. Here we report that phosphorylation of the DUE-B unstructured C-terminal domain unique to higher organisms regulates DUE-B intermolecular binding. Gel filtration analyses show that unphosphorylated DUE-B forms multiple high molecular weight (HMW) complexes. Several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and Mcm2-7 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry of the HMW complexes. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase binding is RNase A sensitive, whereas interaction with Mcm2-7 is nuclease resistant. Unphosphorylated DUE-B HMW complex formation is decreased by PP2A inhibition or direct DUE-B phosphorylation, and increased by inhibition of Cdc7. These results indicate that the state of DUE-B phosphorylation is maintained by the equilibrium between Cdc7-dependent phosphorylation and PP2A-dependent dephosphorylation, each previously shown to regulate replication initiation. Alanine mutation of the DUE-B C-terminal phosphorylation target sites increases MCM binding but blocks Cdc45 loading in vivo and inhibits cell division. In egg extracts alanine mutation of the DUE-B C-terminal phosphorylation sites blocks Cdc45 loading and inhibits DNA replication. The effects of DUE-B C-terminal phosphorylation reveal a novel S phase kinase regulatory mechanism for Cdc45 loading and MCM helicase activation.
PubMed ID: 25258324
PMC ID: PMC4276866
Article link: J Biol Chem
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: cdc45 cdc7 csnk2a1 csnk2a2 mcm2 mcm3 mcm4 mcm5 mcm6.2 mcm7 mmut mt-tr ptpa trna
References [+] :
Aladjem, Genetic dissection of a mammalian replicator in the human beta-globin locus. 1998, Pubmed