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XB-ART-49605
PLoS One 2014 Nov 06;911:e112904. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112904.
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Inflammation-induced reactivation of the ranavirus Frog Virus 3 in asymptomatic Xenopus laevis.

Robert J , Grayfer L , Edholm ES , Ward B , De Jesús Andino F .


Abstract
Natural infections of ectothermic vertebrates by ranaviruses (RV, family Iridoviridae) are rapidly increasing, with an alarming expansion of RV tropism and resulting die-offs of numerous animal populations. Notably, infection studies of the amphibian Xenopus laevis with the ranavirus Frog Virus 3 (FV3) have revealed that although the adult frog immune system is efficient at controlling RV infections, residual quiescent virus can be detected in mononuclear phagocytes of otherwise asymptomatic animals following the resolution of RV infections. It is noteworthy that macrophage-lineage cells are now believed to be a critical element in the RV infection strategy. In the present work, we report that inflammation induced by peritoneal injection of heat-killed bacteria in asymptomatic frogs one month after infection with FV3 resulted in viral reactivation including detectable viral DNA and viral gene expression in otherwise asymptomatic frogs. FV3 reactivation was most prominently detected in kidneys and in peritoneal HAM56+ mononuclear phagocytes. Notably, unlike adult frogs that typically clear primary FV3 infections, a proportion of the animals succumbed to the reactivated FV3 infection, indicating that previous exposure does not provide protection against subsequent reactivation in these animals.

PubMed ID: 25390636
PMC ID: PMC4229299
Article link: PLoS One
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: kif22
Antibodies: Macrophage Ab1


Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Abrams, Recent host-shifts in ranaviruses: signatures of positive selection in the viral genome. 2013, Pubmed