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XB-ART-58982
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A February 8, 2022; 119 (6):
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In vitro cell cycle oscillations exhibit a robust and hysteretic response to changes in cytoplasmic density.

Jin M , Tavella F , Wang S , Yang Q .


Abstract
Cells control the properties of the cytoplasm to ensure proper functioning of biochemical processes. Recent studies showed that cytoplasmic density varies in both physiological and pathological states of cells undergoing growth, division, differentiation, apoptosis, senescence, and metabolic starvation. Little is known about how cellular processes cope with these cytoplasmic variations. Here, we study how a cell cycle oscillator comprising cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1) responds to changes in cytoplasmic density by systematically diluting or concentrating cycling Xenopus egg extracts in cell-like microfluidic droplets. We found that the cell cycle maintains robust oscillations over a wide range of deviations from the endogenous density: as low as 0.2× to more than 1.22× relative cytoplasmic density (RCD). A further dilution or concentration from these values arrested the system in a low or high steady state of Cdk1 activity, respectively. Interestingly, diluting an arrested cytoplasm of 1.22× RCD recovers oscillations at lower than 1× RCD. Thus, the cell cycle switches reversibly between oscillatory and stable steady states at distinct thresholds depending on the direction of tuning, forming a hysteresis loop. We propose a mathematical model which recapitulates these observations and predicts that the Cdk1/Wee1/Cdc25 positive feedback loops do not contribute to the observed robustness, supported by experiments. Our system can be applied to study how cytoplasmic density affects other cellular processes.

PubMed ID: 35101974
Article link: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: cdk1 cope

References [+] :
Araujo, Positive Feedback Keeps Duration of Mitosis Temporally Insulated from Upstream Cell-Cycle Events. 2017, Pubmed