XB-ART-18561J Cell Sci February 1, 1996; 109 ( Pt 2) 309-18.
Human replication proteins hCdc21, hCdc46 and P1Mcm3 bind chromatin uniformly before S-phase and are displaced locally during DNA replication.
Members of the Mcm-protein family have recently been shown to be involved in restricting DNA replication to a single cycle in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. In this study, we extended these observations to human somatic cells and analysed the localisation of the human Mcm-proteins Cdc21, Cdc46 and P1Mcm3 in replicating HeLa cell nuclei. These Mcm-proteins are entirely nuclear in interphase cells and apparently exist in two populations: a nucleosolic population, and a population bound to a nuclear structure, most likely chromatin. The bound population is detected throughout the nucleus in late G1 and early S, and at discrete subnuclear sites following further progression of S-phase. We use high resolution confocal microscopy to determine the subnuclear sites of chromatin-bound Mcm proteins in comparison to the sites of replicating DNA. Importantly, hCdc21, hCdc46 and P1Mcm3 do not colocalise with replication foci, instead these proteins appear to coincide with subnuclear sites of unreplicated chromatin. During progression of S-phase hCdc21, hCdc46 and P1Mcm3 are displaced from their site on chromatin at the time when this site is replicated. Consequently, early replicating sites do not contain bound hCdc21, hCdc46 or P1Mcm3 during later stages of S-phase. Furthermore, G2 nuclei and condensed chromatin in mitotic cells do not contain bound hCdc21, hCdc46 or P1Mcm3. Thus, the human Mcm-proteins Cdc21, Cdc46 and P1Mcm3 are not concentrated at sites of DNA replication. Instead, they appear to be present only on unreplicated chromatin and are displaced from replicating chromatin, consistent with a role in monitoring unreplicated chromatin and ensuring only a single round of DNA replication per cell cycle.
PubMed ID: 8838654
Article link: J Cell Sci
Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: mcm4 mcm5 mmut