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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A March 8, 2005; 102 (10): 3720-5.

Remodeling of the intestine during metamorphosis of Xenopus laevis.

Schreiber AM , Cai L , Brown DD .

Thyroid hormone controls remodeling of the tadpole intestine during the climax of amphibian metamorphosis. In 8 days, the Xenopus laevis tadpole intestine shortens in length by 75%. Simultaneously, the longitudinal muscle fibers contract by about the same extent. The radial muscle fibers also shorten as the diameter narrows. Many radial fibers undergo programmed cell death. We conclude that muscle remodeling and contraction play key roles in the shortening process. Shortening is accompanied by a temporary "heaping" of the epithelial cells into many layers at climax. Cells that face the lumen undergo apoptosis. By the end of metamorphosis, when the epithelium is folded into crypts and villi, the epithelium is a single-cell layer once again. Throughout this remodeling, DNA replication occurs uniformly throughout the epithelium, as do changes in gene expression. The larval epithelial cells as a whole, rather than a subpopulation of stem cells, are the progenitors of the adult epithelial cells.

PubMed ID: 15738398
PMC ID: PMC553331
Article link: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: acta4 actc1 actl6a casp3.2 cdh1 fabp2 fn1 msi1 tbx2 thibz

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References [+] :
Amano, Metamorphosis-associated and region-specific expression of calbindin gene in the posterior intestinal epithelium of Xenopus laevis larva. 1998, Pubmed, Xenbase