XB-ART-23749Development May 1, 1992; 115 (1): 355-69.
Secretory and inductive properties of Drosophila wingless protein in Xenopus oocytes and embryos.
Like its vertebrate homologues, Xenopus wnt-8 and murine wnt-1, we find that Drosophila wingless (wg) protein causes axis duplication when overexpressed in embryos of Xenopus laevis after mRNA injection. In many cases, the secondary axes contain eyes and cement glands, which reflect the induction of the most dorsoanterior mesodermal type, prechordal mesoderm. We show that the extent of axis duplication is dependent on the embryonic site of expression, with ventral expression leading to a more posterior point of axis bifurcation. The observed duplications are due to de novo generation of new axes as shown by rescue of UV-irradiated embryos. The true dorsal mesoderm-inducing properties of wg protein are indicated by its ability to generate extensive duplications after mRNA injection into D-tier cells of 32-cell embryos. As revealed by lineage mapping, the majority of these D cell progeny populate the endoderm; injections into animal blastomeres at this stage are far less effective in inducing secondary axes. However, when expressed in isolated animal cap explants, wg protein induces only ventral mesoderm, unless basic fibroblast growth factor is added, whereupon induction of muscle and occasionally notochord is seen. We conclude that in intact embryos, wg acts in concert with other factors to cause axis duplication. Immunolocalisation studies in embryos indicate that wg protein remains localised to the blastomeres synthesizing it and has a patchy, often perinuclear distribution within these cells, although some gets to the surface. In oocytes, the pool of wg protein is entirely intracellular and relatively unstable. When the polyanion suramin is added, most of the intracellular material is recovered in the external medium.
PubMed ID: 1638990
Article link: Development
Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: wnt1 wnt8a