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This paper reviews work on the presence, synthesis and developmental regulation of glycoconjugates (proteoglycans, glycoproteins and glycolipids) in the early amphibian embryo. In the axolotl there is little regional specificity of protein synthesis until the tailbud stage, but substantial regional specificity of glycoprotein synthesis from the end of gastrulation. Glycolipid synthesis is more uniform although a number of unique species are made in the epidermis. Isolated explants from axolotl early gastrulae show three types of behaviour in terms of glycoprotein synthesis, corresponding to the classical germ layers. Xenopus embryos at this stage show a higher degree of mosaicism. Changes of glycoprotein synthesis in response to mesodermal or neural induction follow the predicted course depending on the regional character of the induced tissue. The regional binding patterns of a number of lectins and monoclonal antibodies specific for particular carbohydrate determinants are presented and their significance discussed.
Fig. 6. Con A receptors in Xenopus early gastrula. (A) DAPI fluorescence, (B) FITC
Con A binding.
Fig. 7. i determinant in the bottle cells in a Xenopus middle gastrula. (A) phase
contrast, (B) antibody binding.
Fig. 8. Receptor for Dolichos biflorus lectin in a Xenopus early gastrula.
Fig. 9. Fibronectin in the Xenopus blastocoel cavity.
Fig. 10. Fibronectin in the extracellular matrix of a Xenopus early neurula. (A) DAPI
fluorescence (B) anti-fibronectin. Note that the antibody also binds to the vitelline
membrane but not to the external embryo surface.
Fig. 11. Peanut lectin receptors in a stage-20 Xenopus embryo. (A) FITC-PNA binding,
(B) The same after neuraminidase treatment.
Fig. 12. Binding of the 4H8 monoclonal antibody to the neural plate of an axolotl
neurula. (A) DAPI fluorescence, (B) 4H8.
Fig. 13. Binding of NCI monoclonal antibody to the fibre tracts of the neural tube in a
stage-32 Xenopus embryo. (A) phase contrast, (B) NCI.
Fig. 14. Binding of MZ15 monoclonal antibody to a stage-40 Xenopus prelarva. The
antibody binds to the notochord and the ventral part of the ear vesicle. (A) DAPI
fluorescence, (B) MZ15.
Fig. 15. Binding of C6 monoclonal antibody to the mesonephros and pronephros of a
stage-41 Xenopus pre-larva. (A) phase contrast, (B) C6.
Fig. 16. Binding of AH6 monoclonal antibody to the pharynx of a stage-41 Xenopus
pre-larva. (A) DAPI fluorescence, (B) AH6.