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J Embryol Exp Morphol August 1, 1982; 70 215-24.
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The development of the peripheral trigeminal innervation in Xenopus embryos.

Davies SN , Kitson DL , Roberts A .

The development of the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular nerves has been followed in Xenopus laevis embryos from the first emergence of growth cones from the trigeminal ganglia until the establishment of functional innervation of the skin or cement gland. The course of each main nerve is highly predictable and follows pre-existing openings between blocks of other tissues. The development of the mandibulary nerve was observed most easily. Like that of the other trigeminal nerves it falls into three stages: (1) A pioneer neurite emerges and a nerve forms as other, later neurites fasciculate with this. (2) On reaching the inside surface of the cement gland the neurites separate and penetrate holes in the basal lamina. (3) The neurites grow between the cells they will innervate and form free nerve endings. The scanning EM observations have been confirmed by electrical recordings from trigeminal neurones. The role of pioneer fibres and substrate guidance are discussed.

PubMed ID: 7142898
Article link: J Embryol Exp Morphol