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Chromosoma January 1, 1975; 50 (1): 69-77.
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Chromosome banding pattern conservatism in birds and nonhomology of chromosome banding patterns between birds, turtles, snakes and amphibians.

Stock AD , Mengden GA .

The G-banded karyotypes of 4 species of birds representing the orders Galliformes, Columbiformes and Musophagiformes were compared. Banding pattern homology between orders was limited t 5o 5 major chromosome arms and the Z chromosome. Even in these major chromosome arms pericentric and paracentric inversions produced alteration of the banding pattern sequences. Addition of constitutive heterochromatin was responsible for changes in banding patterns in the Z chromosome. The chromosome banding patterns of an emydid turtle, Terrepene carolina, 5 species of boid snakes of the genera Liasis, Acrantophis, and Sanzinia and the African clawed-frog. Xenopus muelleri, were also compared to the bird chromosome banding patterns. No homology was observed between any of these major groups: bird, snake, turtle, amphibian. However, intergroup homology was apparent. - The data obtained do not support reports of broad interordinal direct homology of the macrochromosomes of birds and refutes the idea of a primitive bird karyotype with 3 pairs of "Agroup'' chromosomes and 3 pairs of "B group'' chromosomes. - The major mechanisms responsible for chromosome evolution in birds appear to be centric and tandem fusions, paracentric and pericentric inversions, and addition or deletion of heterochromatin.

PubMed ID: 48453
Article link: Chromosoma

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: kidins220

References [+] :
Evans, Chromosome homology and heterochromatin in goat, sheep and ox studied by banding techniques. 1973, Pubmed