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Curr Biol June 5, 2007; 17 (11): 932-9.
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ANR5, an FGF target gene product, regulates gastrulation in Xenopus.

Chung HA , Yamamoto TS , Ueno N .

Gastrulation is a morphogenetic process in which tightly coordinated cell and tissue movements establish the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) to define the anterior-to-posterior embryonic organization [1]. To elicit this movement, cells modulate membrane protrusions and undergo dynamic cell interactions. Here we report that ankyrin repeats domain protein 5 (xANR5), a novel FGF target gene product, regulates cell-protrusion formation and tissue separation, a process that develops the boundary between the ectoderm and mesoderm [2, 3], during Xenopus gastrulation. Loss of xANR5 function by antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) caused a short trunk and spina bifida without affecting mesodermal gene expressions. xANR5-MO also blocked elongation of activin-treated animal caps (ACs) and tissue separation. The dorsal cells of xANR5-MO-injected embryos exhibited markedly reduced membrane protrusions, which could be restored by coinjecting active Rho. Active Rho also rescued the xANR5-MO-inhibited tissue separation. We further demonstrated that xANR5 interacted physically and functionally with paraxial protocadherin (PAPC), which has known functions in cell-sorting behavior, tissue separation, and gastrulation cell movements [4-6], to regulate early morphogenesis. Our findings reveal for the first time that xANR5 acts through Rho to regulate gastrulation and is an important cytoplasmic partner of PAPC, whose cytoplasmic partner was previously unknown.

PubMed ID: 17475493
Article link: Curr Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: acss2.2 ank1 ankef1 bcr chrd.1 fgf4 fn1 fzd7 gsc jun mapk8 msn myc myf5 myod1 not pcdh8 pcdh8.2 rho rho.2 tbxt wnt11 wnt11b
Morpholinos: ankef1 MO1 fzd7 MO1 pcdh8.2 MO1 pcdh8.2 MO2

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