XB-ART-35813Nat Cell Biol May 1, 2007; 9 (5): 531-40.
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FoxG1 is an evolutionarily conserved, winged-helix transcriptional repressor that maintains progenitor cells in the vertebrate forebrain. How the activity of FoxG1 is regulated is not known. Here, we report that in the developing Xenopus and mouse forebrain, FoxG1 is nuclear in progenitor cells but cytoplasmic in differentiating cells. The subcellular localisation of FoxG1 is regulated at the post-translational level by casein kinase I (CKI) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling. CKI phosphorylation of Ser 19 of FoxG1 promotes nuclear import, whereas FGF-induced phosphorylation of Thr 226 promotes nuclear export. Interestingly, FGF-induced phosphorylation of FoxG1 is mediated Akt kinase (also known as protein B kinase, PKB) kinase, rather than the MAPK pathway. Phosphorylation of endogenous FoxG1 is blocked by CKI and Akt inhibitors. In the mouse olfactory placode cell line OP27, and in cortical progenitors, increased FGF signalling causes FoxG1 to exit the nucleus and promotes neuronal differentiation, whereas FGF and Akt inhibitors block this effect. Thus, CKI and FGF signalling converge on an antagonistic regulation of FoxG1, which in turn controls neurogenesis in the forebrain.
PubMed ID: 17435750
Article link: Nat Cell Biol
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: akt1 csnk1g2 foxg1 mapk1 ptk2b