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Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci April 12, 2008; 363 (1495): 1387-92.

Understanding how morphogens work.

Smith JC , Hagemann A , Saka Y , Williams PH .

In this article, we describe the mechanisms by which morphogens in the Xenopus embryo exert their long-range effects. Our results are consistent with the idea that signalling molecules such as activin and the nodal-related proteins traverse responding tissue not by transcytosis or by cytonemes but by movement through the extracellular space. We suggest, however, that additional experiments, involving real-time imaging of morphogens, are required for a real understanding of what influences signalling range and the shape of a morphogen gradient.

PubMed ID: 18198154
PMC ID: PMC2610127
Article link: Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: nodal

References [+] :
Agius, Endodermal Nodal-related signals and mesoderm induction in Xenopus. 2000, Pubmed, Xenbase