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Gen Comp Endocrinol September 1, 2010; 168 (2): 174-80.

Molecular and genetic studies suggest that thyroid hormone receptor is both necessary and sufficient to mediate the developmental effects of thyroid hormone.

Das B , Matsuda H , Fujimoto K , Sun G , Matsuura K , Shi YB .

Thyroid hormone (TH) affects diverse biological processes and can exert its effects through both gene regulation via binding the nuclear TH receptors (TRs) and non-genomic actions via binding to cell surface and cytoplasmic proteins. The critical importance of TH in vertebrate development has long been established, ranging from the formation of human cretins to the blockage of frog metamorphosis due the TH deficiency. How TH affects vertebrate development has been difficult to study in mammals due to the complications associated with the uterus-enclosed mammalian embryos. Anuran metamorphosis offers a unique opportunity to address such an issue. Using Xenopus as a model, we and others have shown that the expression of TRs and their heterodimerization partners RXRs (9-cis retinoic acid receptors) correlates temporally with metamorphosis in different organs in two highly related species, Xenopuslaevis and Xenopus tropicalis. In vivo molecular studies have shown that TR and RXR are bound to the TH response elements (TREs) located in TH-inducible genes in developing tadpoles of both species. More importantly, transgenic studies in X. laevis have demonstrated that TR function is both necessary and sufficient for mediating the metamorphic effects of TH. Thus, the non-genomic effects of TH have little or no roles during metamorphosis and likely during vertebrate development in general.

PubMed ID: 20138179
PMC ID: PMC3426277
Article link: Gen Comp Endocrinol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus tropicalis
Genes referenced: crebbp hdac3 ncor1 ncor2

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Ashizawa, Regulation of thyroid hormone receptor-mediated transcription by a cytosol protein. 1992, Pubmed