XB-ART-4181Genes Dev December 15, 2003; 17 (24): 3023-8.
Integration of IGF, FGF, and anti-BMP signals via Smad1 phosphorylation in neural induction.
How do very diverse signaling pathways induce neural differentiation in Xenopus? Anti-BMP (Chordin), FGF8, and IGF2 signals are integrated in the embryo via the regulation of Smad1 phosphorylation. Neural induction results from the combined inhibition of BMP receptor serine/threonine kinases and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases that signal through MAPK and phosphorylate Smad1 in the linker region, further inhibiting Smad1 transcriptional activity. This hard-wired molecular mechanism at the level of the Smad1 transcription factor may help explain the opposing activities of IGF, FGF, and BMP signals not only in neural induction, but also in other aspects of vertebrate development.
PubMed ID: 14701872
PMC ID: PMC305254
Article link: Genes Dev
Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: chrd.1 fgf8 igf1r igf2 igf3 mapk1 smad1
Morpholinos: igf1r MO1
References [+] :
Blume-Jensen, Oncogenic kinase signalling. 2001, Pubmed