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Br J Pharmacol October 1, 2012; 167 (3): 654-65.
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Function and expression of the proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 along the rat gastrointestinal tract: implications for intestinal absorption of gaboxadol.

Broberg Ml , Holm R , Tønsberg H , Frølund S , Ewon KB , Nielsen Al , Brodin B , Jensen A , Kall MA , Christensen KV , Nielsen CU .

Intestinal absorption via membrane transporters may determine the pharmacokinetics of drug compounds. The hypothesis is that oral absorption of gaboxadol (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo [5,4-c] pyridine-3-ol) in rats occurs via the proton-coupled amino acid transporter, rPAT1 (encoded by the gene rSlc36a1). Consequently, we aimed to elucidate the in vivo role of rPAT1 in the absorption of gaboxadol from various intestinal segments obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats.The absorption of gaboxadol was investigated following its administration into four different intestinal segments. The intestinal expression of rSlc36a1 mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, the hPAT1-/rPAT1-mediated transport of gaboxadol or L-proline was studied in hPAT1-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes, Caco-2 cell monolayers and excised segments of the rat intestine.The absorption fraction of gaboxadol was high (81.3-91.3%) following its administration into the stomach, duodenum and jejunum, but low (4.2%) after administration into the colon. The pharmacokinetics of gaboxadol were modified by the co-administration of L-tryptophan (an hPAT1 inhibitor) and L-proline (an hPAT1 substrate). The in vitro carrier-mediated uptake rate of L-proline in the excised intestinal segments was highest in the mid jejunum and lowest in the colon. The in vitro uptake and the in vivo absorption correlated with the expression of rSlc36a1 mRNA along the rat intestine.These results suggest that PAT1 mediates the intestinal absorption of gaboxadol and therefore determines its oral bioavailability. This has implications for the in vivo role of PAT1 and may have an influence on the design of pharmaceutical formulations of PAT1 substrates.

PubMed ID: 22577815
PMC ID: PMC3449268
Article link: Br J Pharmacol

References [+] :
Abbot, Vigabatrin transport across the human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) brush-border membrane is via the H+ -coupled amino-acid transporter hPAT1. 2006, Pubmed, Xenbase