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Genes Dev September 15, 2003; 17 (18): 2239-44.
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Dkk1 and noggin cooperate in mammalian head induction.

del Barco Barrantes I , Davidson G , Gröne HJ , Westphal H , Niehrs C .

Growth factor antagonists play important roles in mediating the inductive effects of the Spemann organizer in amphibian embryos and its equivalents in other vertebrates. Dual inhibition of Wnt and BMP signals has been proposed to confer head organizer activity. We tested the requirement of this coinhibition in Xenopus and mice. In Xenopus, simultaneous reduction of the BMP antagonists chordin and noggin, and the Wnt antagonist dickkopf1 (dkk1) leads to anterior truncations. In mice, compound mutants for dkk1 and noggin display severe head defects, with deletion of all head structures anterior to the mid-hindbrain boundary. These defects arise as a result of a failure in anterior specification at the gastrula stage. The results provide genetic evidence for the dual inhibition model and indicate that dkk1 and noggin functionally cooperate in the head organizer.

PubMed ID: 12952897
PMC ID: PMC196461
Article link: Genes Dev

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: chrd.1 dkk1 nog
Morpholinos: chrd.1 MO3 nog MO1

References [+] :
Anderson, Chordin and noggin promote organizing centers of forebrain development in the mouse. 2002, Pubmed