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Curr Top Dev Biol January 1, 2013; 105 275-97.

Unliganded thyroid hormone receptor regulates metamorphic timing via the recruitment of histone deacetylase complexes.

Shi YB .

Anuran metamorphosis involves a complex series of tissue transformations that change an aquatic tadpole to a terrestrial frog and resembles the postembryonic perinatal period in mammals. Thyroid hormone (TH) plays a causative role in amphibian metamorphosis and its effect is mediated by TH receptors (TRs). Molecular analyses during Xenopus development have shown that unliganded TR recruits histone deacetylase (HDAC)-containing N-CoR/SMRT complexes and causes histone deacetylation at target genes while liganded TR leads to increased histone acetylations and altered histone methylations at target genes. Transgenic studies involving mutant TR-cofactors have shown that corepressor recruitment by unliganded TR is required to ensure proper timing of the onset of metamorphosis while coactivator levels influence the rate of metamorphic progression. In addition, a number of factors that can influence cellular free TH levels appear to contribute the timing of metamorphic transformations of different organs by regulating the levels of unliganded vs. liganded TR in an organ-specific manner. Thus, the recruitment of HDAC-containing corepressor complexes by unliganded TR likely controls both the timing of the initiation of metamorphosis and the temporal regulation of organ-specific transformations. Similar mechanisms likely mediate TR function in mammals as the maturation of many organs during postembryonic development is dependent upon TH and resembles organ metamorphosis in amphibians.

PubMed ID: 23962846
PMC ID: PMC4180093
Article link: Curr Top Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: hdac3

References [+] :
Arrojo E Drigo, Type 2 deiodinase at the crossroads of thyroid hormone action. 2011, Pubmed