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Endocrinology September 1, 2015; 156 (9): 3381-93.
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Direct Activation of Amidohydrolase Domain-Containing 1 Gene by Thyroid Hormone Implicates a Role in the Formation of Adult Intestinal Stem Cells During Xenopus Metamorphosis.

Okada M , Miller TC , Fu L , Shi YB .

The T3-dependent anuran metamorphosis resembles postembryonic development in mammals, the period around birth when plasma T3 levels peak. In particular, the remodeling of the intestine during metamorphosis mimics neonatal intestinal maturation in mammals when the adult intestinal epithelial self-renewing system is established. We have been using intestinal metamorphosis to investigate how the organ-specific adult stem cells are formed during vertebrate development. Early studies in Xenopus laevis have shown that this process involves complete degeneration of the larval epithelium and de novo formation of adult stem cells. A tissue-specific microarray analysis of intestinal gene expression during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis has identified a number of candidate stem cell genes. Here we have carried out detailed analyses of one such gene, amidohydrolase domain containing 1 (AMDHD1) gene, which encodes an enzyme in the histidine catabolic pathway. We show that AMDHD1 is exclusively expressed in the proliferating adult epithelial stem cells during metamorphosis with little expression in other intestinal tissues. We further provide evidence that T3 activates AMDHD1 gene expression directly at the transcription level through T3 receptor binding to the AMDHD1 gene in the intestine. In addition, we have reported earlier that histidine ammonia-lyase gene, another gene in histidine catabolic pathway, is similarly regulated by T3 in the intestine. These results together suggest that histidine catabolism plays a critical role in the formation and/or proliferation of adult intestinal stem cells during metamorphosis.

PubMed ID: 26086244
PMC ID: PMC4541628
Article link: Endocrinology
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: amdhd1 tecta.2 thrb

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
BROWN, The mammalian metabolism of L-histidine. II. The enzymatic formation, stabilization, purification, and properties of 4(5)-imidazolone-5(4)-propionic acid, the product of urocanase activity. 1960, Pubmed