XB-ART-53691Biochemistry January 1, 2017; 56 (4): 647-656.
HMGB1 Stimulates Activity of Polymerase β on Nucleosome Substrates.
The process of base excision repair (BER) recognizes and repairs small lesions or inappropriate bases on DNA through either a short-patch or long-patch pathway. The enzymes involved in BER have been well-characterized on DNA substrates, and, somewhat surprisingly, many of these enzymes, including several DNA glycosylases, AP endonuclease (APE), FEN1 endonuclease, and DNA ligases, have been shown to have activity on DNA substrates within nucleosomes. DNA polymerase β (Pol β), however, exhibits drastically reduced or no activity on nucleosomal DNA. Interestingly, acetylation of Pol β, by the acetyltransferase p300, inhibits its 5'' dRP-lyase activity and presumably pushes repair of DNA substrates through the long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER) pathway. In addition to the major enzymes involved in BER, a chromatin architectural factor, HMGB1, was found to directly interact with and enhance the activity of APE1 and FEN1, and thus may aid in altering the structure of the nucleosome to be more accessible to BER factors. In this work, we investigated whether acetylation of Pol β, either alone or in conjunction with HMGB1, facilitates its activity on nucleosome substrates. We find acetylated Pol β exhibits enhanced strand displacement synthesis activity on DNA substrates, but, similar to the unmodified enzyme, has little or no activity on nucleosomes. Preincubation of DNA templates with HMGB1 has little or no stimulatory effect on Pol β and even is inhibitory at higher concentrations. In contrast, preincubation of nucleosomes with HMGB1 rescues Pol β gap-filling activity in nucleosomes, suggesting that this factor may help overcome the repressive effects of chromatin.
PubMed ID: 28098985
PMC ID: PMC5679249
Article link: Biochemistry
Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: crebbp fen1 hmgb1 utrn
References [+] :
Balliano, Base excision repair in chromatin: Insights from reconstituted systems. 2015, Pubmed