XB-ART-54434Environ Sci Technol January 1, 2018; 52 (3): 1602-1611.
Bisphenol F Disrupts Thyroid Hormone Signaling and Postembryonic Development in Xenopus laevis.
The safety of bisphenol A (BPA) alternatives has attracted much attention due to their wide use. In this study, we investigated the effects of bisphenol F (BPF), an alternative to BPA, on thyroid hormone (TH) signaling and postembryonic development in vertebrates using T3-induced and spontaneous Xenopus metamorphosis as models. We found that in the T3-induced metamorphosis assay, higher concentrations of BPF (100-10000 nM) antagonized T3-induced TH-response gene transcription and morphological changes including intestinal remodeling in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas 10 nM BPF exerted stimulatory effects on T3-induced integral metamorphosis when inhibited T3-induced TH-response gene transcription, demonstrating TH signaling disrupting effects of BPF. In the spontaneous metamorphosis assay, correspondingly, BPF inhibited development at metamorphic climax (with high endogenous TH levels), but promoted pre- and pro-metamorphic development (with low endogenous TH levels), displaying a developmental stage-dependent manner. Importantly, we observed agonistic actions of BPF on Notch signaling in intestines, showing that BPF disrupts vertebrate development possibly via multi pathways besides TH signaling. Thus, we infer the biphasic concentration-response relationship between BPF exposure and T3-induced metamorphosis could result from the interactions of TH signaling with other signaling pathways such as Notch signaling. Our study highlights the adverse influences of BPF on vertebrate development.
PubMed ID: 29323886
Article link: Environ Sci Technol
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: notch1 thra thrb
GO keywords: metamorphosis (sensu Amphibia)