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F1000Res January 1, 2020; 9

Diversity of left-right symmetry breaking strategy in animals.

Hamada H , Tam P .

Left-right (L-R) asymmetry of visceral organs in animals is established during embryonic development via a stepwise process. While some steps are conserved, different strategies are employed among animals for initiating the breaking of body symmetry. In zebrafish (teleost), Xenopus (amphibian), and mice (mammal), symmetry breaking is elicited by directional fluid flow at the L-R organizer, which is generated by motile cilia and sensed by mechanoresponsive cells. In contrast, birds and reptiles do not rely on the cilia-driven fluid flow. Invertebrates such as Drosophila and snails employ another distinct mechanism, where the symmetry breaking process is underpinned by cellular chirality acquired downstream of the molecular interaction of myosin and actin. Here, we highlight the convergent entry point of actomyosin interaction and planar cell polarity to the diverse L-R symmetry breaking mechanisms among animals.

PubMed ID: 32148774
PMC ID: PMC7043131
Article link: F1000Res

Genes referenced: dand5 nodal

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References [+] :
Abe, The development of CRISPR for a mollusc establishes the formin <i>Lsdia1</i> as the long-sought gene for snail dextral/sinistral coiling. 2020, Pubmed