XB-ART-5738Br J Cancer February 24, 2003; 88 (4): 579-85.
hAG-2 and hAG-3, human homologues of genes involved in differentiation, are associated with oestrogen receptor-positive breast tumours and interact with metastasis gene C4.4a and dystroglycan.
hAG-2 and hAG-3 are recently discovered human homologues of the secreted Xenopus laevis proteins XAG-1/2 (AGR-1/2) that are expressed in the cement gland, an ectodermal organ in the head associated with anteroposterior fate determination during early development. Although the roles of hAG-2 and hAG-3 in mammalian cells are unknown, both proteins share a high degree of protein sequence homology and lie adjacent to one another on chromosome 7p21. hAG-2 mRNA expression has previously been demonstrated in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive cell lines. In this study, we have used real-time quantitative RT - PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays to demonstrate concordant expression of hAG-2 and hAG-3 mRNA and protein in breast tumour tissues. Tumour expression of both genes correlated with OR (hAG2, P=0.0002; hAG-3, P=0.0012), and inversely correlated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (P=0.003). Yeast two-hybrid cloning identified metastasis-associated GPI-anchored C4.4a protein and extracellular alpha-dystroglycan (DAG-1) as binding partners for both hAG-2 and hAG-3, which if replicated in clinical oncology would demonstrate a potential role in tumour metastasis through the regulation of receptor adhesion and functioning. hAG-2 and hAG-3 may therefore serve as useful molecular markers and/or potential therapeutic targets for hormone-responsive breast tumours.
PubMed ID: 12592373
PMC ID: PMC2377166
Article link: Br J Cancer
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: ag1 dag1 gpi pigy
Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Aberger, Anterior specification of embryonic ectoderm: the role of the Xenopus cement gland-specific gene XAG-2. 1998, Pubmed, Xenbase