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J Morphol January 1, 2021; 282 (3): 368-377.

Microvascular anatomy of the urinary bladder in the adult African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis: A scanning electron microscope study of vascular casts.

Lametschwandtner A , Minnich B .

We studied urinary bladders of adult male and female Xenopus laevis using light microscopy of stained tissue sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of vascular corrosion casts (VCCs). Results showed that bilaterally a vesical artery branched off the femoral artery. At the dorso-lateral serosal surface of the body of the bladder each artery splitted within a short distance into up to five smaller arteries that supplied body and neck regions. Arteries gave off short and long terminal arterioles, which fed the mucosal capillary meshwork. Long terminal arterioles followed dimensional changes of the bladder, while short ones anchored the capillary network to the arterial system. Capillary mesh sizes and shapes varied according to the filling state of the urinary bladder. In the highly to moderately distended (filled) bladder, capillaries were rather straight or undulated only slightly, in the contracted (emptied) bladder they undulated strongly and lay side by side. Postcapillary venules formed by two equally sized capillaries or from capillaries, which serially drained into a small postcapillary venule. Vesical venules formed a large dorsal vesical and a varying number of smaller lateral and ventral vesical veins. The dorsal vesical vein drained either directly or via the posterior hemorrhoidal vein into the common pelvic vein. Lateral and ventral vesical veins also drained into the latter. The vascular patterns found were discussed in respect to the bladder spatial movements during distention (filling) and relaxation (emptying). Furthermore, it was hypothesized that an extensively filled bladder could compress the overlaying abdominal vein forcing part of the blood otherwise drained towards the liver to be detoured via the renal portal veins to the kidneys.

PubMed ID: 33368528
PMC ID: PMC7898512
Article link: J Morphol

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: ncoa5

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Aharinejad, Sphincters in the rat pulmonary veins. Comparison of scanning electron and transmission electron microscopic studies. 1992, Pubmed