XB-ART-57946Vitam Horm January 1, 2021; 116 269-293.
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The development of adult intestinal stem cells: Insights from studies on thyroid hormone-dependent anuran metamorphosis.
Vertebrates organ development often takes place in two phases: initial formation and subsequent maturation into the adult form. This is exemplified by the intestine. In mouse, the intestine at birth has villus, where most differentiated epithelial cells are located, but lacks any crypts, where adult intestinal stem cells reside. The crypt is formed during the first 3 weeks after birth when plasma thyroid hormone (T3) levels are high. Similarly, in anurans, the intestine undergoes drastic remodeling into the adult form during metamorphosis in a process completely dependent on T3. Studies on Xenopus metamorphosis have revealed important clues on the formation of the adult intestine during metamorphosis. Here we will review our current understanding on how T3 induces the degeneration of larval epithelium and de novo formation of adult intestinal stem cells. We will also discuss the mechanistic conservations in intestinal development between anurans and mammals.
PubMed ID: 33752821
Article link: Vitam Horm
Species referenced: Xenopus tropicalis Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: lgr5 msi1 mxd1 myc prdm1 prmt1 thra thrb
GO keywords: metamorphosis