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Environ Pollut December 15, 2021; 291 118226.
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Effect assessment of reclaimed waters and carbamazepine exposure on the thyroid axis of Xenopus laevis: Gene expression modifications.

Martínez-Guitarte JL , Beltrán EM , González-Doncel M , García-Hortigüela P , Fernández A , Pablos MV .

Reclaimed water (RW) obtained from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is used for irrigation, groundwater recharge, among other potential uses. Although most pollutants are removed, traces of them are frequently found, which can affect organisms and alter the environment. The presence of a myriad of contaminants in RW makes it a complex mixture with very diverse effects and interactions. A previous study, in which tadpoles were exposed to RW and RW spiked with Carbamazepine (CBZ), presented slight thyroid gland stimulation, as suggested by the development acceleration of tadpoles and histological findings in the gland provoked by RW, regardless of the CBZ concentration. To complement this study, the present work analysed the putative molecular working mechanism by selecting six genes coding for the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHβ), thyroid hormone metabolising enzymes (DIO2, DIO3), thyroid receptors (THRA, THRB), and a thyroid hormone-induced DNA binding protein (Kfl9). Transcriptional activity was studied by Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) in brains, hind limbs, and tails on exposure days 1, 7, and 21. No significant differences were observed between treatments for each time point, but slight alterations were noted when the time response was analysed. The obtained results indicate that the effects of RW or RW spiked with CBZ are negligible for the genes analysed during the selected exposure periods.

PubMed ID: 34563849
Article link: Environ Pollut

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: dio1 dio2 klf9 rpl8 thra thrb tshb
GO keywords: metamorphosis [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions