XB-ART-5961Dev Dyn January 1, 2003; 226 (1): 12-23.
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Xenopus muscle development: from primary to secondary myogenesis.
Xenopus myogenesis is characterized by specific features, different from those of mammalian and avian systems both at the cellular level and in gene expression patterns. During early embryogenesis, after the initial molecular signals inducing mesoderm, the myogenic determination factors XMyoD and XMyf-5 are activated in presomitic mesoderm in response to mesoderm-inducing factors. After these first inductions of the myogenic program, forming muscles in Xenopus can have different destinies, some of these resulting in cell death before adulthood. In particular, it is quite characteristic of this species that, during metamorphosis, the primary myotomal myofibers completely die and are progressively replaced by secondary "adult" multinucleated myofibers. This feature offers the unique opportunity to totally separate the molecular analysis of these two distinct types of myogenesis. The aim of this review is to summarize our knowledge on the cellular and molecular events as well as the epigenetic regulations involved in the construction of Xenopus muscles during development.
PubMed ID: 12508220
Article link: Dev Dyn
Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: acta4 actc1 myf6 myh2 myh4 myl1 myod1 myog tpm1 tpm2 tpm3
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|Fig. 5. Expression of tropomyosin mRNAs in dorsal muscle. Transverse sections of the body at stage 54 submitted to in situ hybridisation reacted with probes as indicated. The region of the dorsomedial edge (arrowheads) corresponding to secondary myofibers only express the -TMad gene, an adult muscle gene, whereas the primary myofibers only express the TM 7 gene, an larval muscle gene. The TM 2 transcripts are detected in both primary and secondary myofibers.|