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Cell December 27, 2002; 111 (7): 981-90.
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PKCgamma regulates syndecan-2 inside-out signaling during xenopus left-right development.

Kramer KL , Barnette JE , Yost HJ .

The transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan-2 cell nonautonomously regulates left-right (LR) development in migrating mesoderm by an unknown mechanism, leading to LR asymmetric gene expression and LR orientation of the heart and gut. Here, we demonstrate that protein kinase C gamma (PKCgamma) mediates phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-2 in right, but not left, animal cap ectodermal cells. Notably, both phosphorylation states of syndecan-2 are obligatory for normal LR development, with PKCgamma-dependent phosphorylated syndecan-2 in right ectodermal cells and nonphosphorylated syndecan-2 in left cells. The ectodermal cells contact migrating mesodermal cells during early gastrulation, concurrent with the transmission of LR information. This precedes the appearance of monocilia and is one of the earliest steps of LR development. These results demonstrate that PKCgamma regulates the cytoplasmic phosphorylation of syndecan-2 and, consequently, syndecan-2-mediated inside-out signaling to adjacent cells.

PubMed ID: 12507425
Article link: Cell

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: cyp26a1 kit lefty nodal nodal1 pitx2 prkcg sdc2
Antibodies: Phospho-Sdc2 Ab3 Prkcg Ab1 Sdc2 Ab2
Morpholinos: prkcg MO1 prkcg MO2

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