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J Physiol January 1, 2002; 545 (2): 475-84.
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cAMP-independent responses of olfactory neurons in Xenopus laevis tadpoles and their projection onto olfactory bulb neurons.

Manzini I , Rössler W , Schild D .

We report on responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) upon application of amino acids and forskolin using a novel slice preparation of the olfactory epithelium of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Responses were measured using the patch-clamp technique. Both amino acids and forskolin proved to be potent stimuli. Interestingly, a number of ORNs that responded to amino acids did not respond to forskolin. This suggests that some amino acids activate transduction pathways other than the well-known cAMP-mediated one. The differential processing of cAMP-mediated stimuli on the one hand and amino acid stimuli on the other was further elucidated by calcium-imaging of olfactory bulb neurons using a novel nose-olfactory bulb preparation of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. The projection pattern of amino acid-sensitive ORNs to olfactory bulb neurons differed markedly from the projection pattern of forskolin-sensitive ORNs. Olfactory bulb neurons activated by amino acids were located laterally compared to those activated by forskolin, and only a small proportion responded to both stimuli. The ensemble of neurons activated by forskolin was also activated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and the membrane-permeant cAMP analogue 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)adenosine 3'',5''-cyclic monophosphate (pCPT-cAMP). We therefore conclude that sensory transduction of a number of amino acids is cAMP independent, and amino acid- and cAMP-mediated responses are processed differentially at the level of the olfactory bulb.

PubMed ID: 12456827
PMC ID: PMC2290687
Article link: J Physiol

References [+] :
Boekhoff, Rapid activation of alternative second messenger pathways in olfactory cilia from rats by different odorants. 1990, Pubmed