XB-ART-6424Oncogene October 17, 2002; 21 (47): 7137-46.
We have previously shown that the Jak2 tyrosine kinase is activated in Bcr-Abl positive cell lines and blood cells from CML blast crisis patients by tyrosine phosphorylation. We are searching for downstream targets of Jak2 in Bcr-Abl positive cells. It is known that c-Myc expression is required for the oncogenic effects of Bcr-Abl, and that over-expression of c-Myc complements the transformation defect of the Bcr-Abl SH2 deletion mutant. Moreover, the Bcr-Abl SH2 deletion mutant and an Abl C-terminal deletion mutant are deficient in activating c-Myc expression. Since the Jak2 binds to the C-terminal domain of Bcr-Abl and optimal Jak2 activation requires the SH2 domain, we tested whether Jak2 was involved in c-Myc protein induction by Bcr-Abl. We treated the 32Dp210 Bcr-Abl cells with the Jak2 specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG490, and found that this drug, like the Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI-571, inhibited c-Myc protein induction by Bcr-Abl. Treatment of 32Dp210 Bcr-Abl cells with AG490 also inhibited c-MYC RNA expression. It is also known that c-Myc protein is a labile protein that is increased in amounts in response to various growth factors by a mechanism not involving new Myc protein formation. Treatment of 32Dp210 Bcr-Abl cells with both the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and AG490 blocked the reduction of the c-Myc protein observed by AG490 alone. An adaptor protein SH2-Bbeta is involved in the enhancement of the tyrosine kinase activity of Jak2 following ligand/receptor interaction. In this regard we showed that the Jak2/Bcr-Abl complex contains SH2-Bbeta. Expression of the SH2-Bbeta R555E mutant in 32Dp210 Bcr-Abl cells reduced c-Myc expression about 40% compared to a vector control. Interestingly, we found the reduction of the c-Myc protein in several clones of dominant-negative (DN) Jak2 expressing K562 cells correlated very well with the reduction of tumor growth of these cells in nude mice as compared to vector transfected K562 cells. Both STI-571 and AG490 also induced apoptosis in 32Dp210 cells. Of interest, IL-3 containing medium reversed the STI-571 induced apoptosis of 32Dp210 cells but did not reverse the induction of apoptosis by AG490, which strongly supports the specificity of the inhibitory effects of AG490 on the Jak2 tyrosine kinase. In summary, our findings indicate that Jak2 mediates the increase in c-Myc expression that is induced by Bcr-Abl. Our results indicate that activated Jak2 not only mediates an increase of c-MYC RNA expression but also interferes with proteasome-dependent degradation of c-Myc protein.
PubMed ID: 12370803
Article link: Oncogene
Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: abl1 bcr jak2 myc nat8.6